Kumaon Kingdom

The only Hindu Kingdom, which the Mughals could never win and one of the very few kingdoms, which rejected British sovereignty. Kumaon Kingdom was always a sovereign country.

The history of Kumaon is older than that of the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The worship of Lord Shiva is predominant in this region.

Historically, Kumaon region is believed to be the land where the Vedas and the Shastras were composed and the great epic Mahabharata was written.



The Royal Flag of Kumaon Kingdom,

  • The white background stands for peace and friendship.
  • The crossed Khukri sign embossed on the white background with blades on the outer side signifies that, although we yearn for peace and friendship, we are always ready for combat.
  • The red color signifies our enemies blood, if anyone dares to challenge us.

The War Flag of Kumaon Kingdom,

  • The black background stands for all out and no rules warfare.
  • The crossed Khukri sign on black background with blades on the outer side, reminds us to win the war at any cost, keep the flag fluttering with, enemy being the main target and annihilation of the enemy the main motto.
  • The red color on the black flag signifies our enemies blood, pushes us to defeat the enemy by utilizing all and any means, following the principles of 1. First Attack. 2. Swift Attack. 3. Lethal Attack and 4. Continuous Persistent Attack. 


In the early 7th century the Chand Kingdom in Kumaon was established by Raja Som Chand. He continued to call his state Kurmanchal and established its capital in Champawat. The Baleshwar and Nagnath temples were built in this former capital city during the 11th and 12th centuries. Later in 1563 the capital was shifted to Almora by Raja Kalyan Chand and he lay the foundation of a town called Rajapur (A name that is still used and is found inscribed on a number of copper plates of that time.

The Chand rule is seen as the most prominent empire of Kumaon and it coincided with a period of cultural resurgence. Archeological surveys point towards the development of culture and art forms during this period. 

From 7th to 18th centuries, Kumaon prospered under the Chand Monarchs and during this period , learnings and new forms of painting (The Pahari school of art) developed.

One of the most powerful ruler of Chand dynasty was Raja Baz Bahadur Chand (1638 - 78) AD. In 1655 he attacked Garhwal and captured the Terai region, including Dehradun. Raja Baz Bahadur Chand built the Golu Devta Temple at Gorakhal, near Bhimtal and also built the Bhimeshwara Mahadev Temple at Bhimtal.

Towards the end of 17th century Raja Udyot Chand erected several temples in Almora, including the Tripur Sundari, Udyot Chandeshwar and Parbateshwar, to mark the victory over Garhwal and Doti. Raja Gyan Chand ascended the throne in 1698 and in 1699 he attacked Garhwal, defeating the remaining Garhwali forces in the battle of Daduli (near Melchauri in Garhwal) In 1707 the Kumaon forces annexed Juniyagarh in Bichla Chaukot (Syalde), and razed the old fort at Chandpur. Later Raja Jagat Chand (1708 - 1720) defeated the Raja of Garhwal and extended his rule in entire Garhwal.

The Chand Kings also defeated the Rajwars of Askot, though the latter were allowed to hold their land on payment of a tribute. The hill station of Binsar, 30 km from Almora was the Summer retreat of the Chand Kings.


Chand Kingdom of Kumaon was originally inhabited by a large number of Hindu clans, each controlling a small area and protecting it with a fortress. These fortresses were scattered across the western portion of Kumaon where fertile cropland was more readily available, because of these fortresses western Kumaon was referred to as Garhwal. "The country of fortresses" 

Because of its crucial strategic position and religious significance Chand Kingdom of Kumaon was attacked a number of times. In the sixteenth century the sultans of Bahmani launched several expeditions in to Kumaon. In 1635 the moghal emperor Shah Jahan I (r. 1628 - 1658) launched a massive invasion of Kumaon and in that war, Kumaon successfully repulsed the moghals. Shah Jahan increased the size of the force and attacked again, with out any success against the brave Kumaonis.


The Chand Kingdom at its peak included Kumaon, Garhwal, Himachal, J&K, Mahakali Anchal, Seti Anchal, Bheri Anchal, Karnali Anchal, Rapti Anchal, Dhawalagiri Anchal, Gandaki Anchal, Lumbini Anchal and entire Tibet, which included the holy Mount Kailash also known as Gang Rinpoche or as Kangri Rinpoche in the local language.

The Kumaon Kingdom stretched up to Afghanistan at the far end, Nepal and Tibet at the other end and plains of UP  at one end. Very few kingdoms in the world can lay claim of having influence in such a vast area.

Even today the attire worn by people and practices being followed in the entire stretch from Afghanistan, Kashmir, Himachal, Uttarakhand, Tibet and Nepal is similar.


The current living King of Uttarakhand is Raja Mahendra Chand of Lamakhet (Pithoragarh) married to Rani Gita Chand of Rina and they both have three children. Rajkumari Aakanksha Chand, Rajkumari Mallika Chand and Rajkumar Aryan Chand.


Names of Chand Kings who have ruled Kumaon Kingdom before Raja Mahendra Chand. (Names in ascending order)

S.No            NameSamvatYears Ruled
1Raja Som Chand75721
2Raja Atma Chand77819
3Raja Puran Chand79718
4Raja Indra Chand81520
5Raja Sansar Chand83535
6Raja Sudha Chand87020
7Raja Hammir Chand89023
8Raja Veen Chand91313
9Raja Veer Chand106715
10Raja Rup Chand113720
11Raja Lakshmi Chand115020
12Raja Dharam Chand117019
13Raja Karam Chand117819
14Raja Kalyan Chand119721
15Raja Nirbhay Chand120621
16Raja Nar Chand122718
17Raja Nanaki Chand123431
18Raja Ram Chand125221
19Raja Bhikham Chand126221
20Raja Megh Chand128319
21Raja Dhyan Chand129019
22Raja Parvat Chand130922
23Raja Thor Chand131821
24Raja Kalyan Chand133221
25Raja Triloki Chand135328
26Raja Damar Chand136029
27Raja Dharam Chand137830
28Raja Abhay Chand140131
29Raja Garud Gyan Chand143125
30Raja Harihar Chand147626
31Raja Udyan Chand147726
32Raja Atma Chand147827
33Raja Hari Chand147919
34Raja Vikram Chand148014
35Raja Bharti Chand149424
36Raja Ratan Chand151827
37Raja Kirati Chand154518
38Raja Pratab Chand156014
39Raja Tara Chand157417
40Raja Mank Chand159011
41Raja (Kali) Kalyan Chand159918
42Raja Punni/Puran/Fateh Chand16085
43Raja Bhikham Chand16125
44Raja (Balo) Kalyan Chand16178
45Raja Rudra Chand162530
46Raja Laxman Chand16284
47Raja Dilip Chand16323
48Raja Vijay Chand16351
49Raja Trimall Chand16362
50Raja Baz Bahadur Chand163839
51Raja Udyot Chand167829
52Raja Gyan Chand169819
53Raja Jagat Chand17089
54Raja Devi Chand172011
55Raja Ajit Chand17276
56Raja Balo Kalyan Chand17292
57Raja Doti Chand17301
58Raja Deep Chand174817
59Raja Mohan Chand177728
60Raja Shiv Chand17881
61Raja Mahesh Chand17882
62Raja Mahendra Chand1964Current King