कुमाऊनी हुना को घमंड छ, निको लागंछ त ठीक छ, ने निको लग्नो त ले ठीक छ, हमरो घमंड उसोइ रिन्या हो 


Kumaon Kingdom

The only "Hindu Kingdom", which the Mughals could never win and one of the very few kingdoms, which rejected British sovereignty (“The Kumaon Kingdom” is one of the few countries of “South Asia” that was never ruled or conquered by any “Muslim Dynasties”).

The one and only "Hindu kingdom" which has defeated "The most cunning and brutal Akbar" + his grandson "Shah Jahan" and the rest of the Moghul empire each and every time they dared to fight the "Kumaon Kingdom".

The Kumaon Kingdom was always a sovereign country and ruled by only Hindus.

The history of Kumaon is older than that of the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The worship of Lord Shiva is predominant in this region.

Historically, the Kumaon region is believed to be the land where the Vedas and the Shastras were composed and the great epic Mahabharata was written. 

Status - Sovereign State.


Today part of - India, Nepal, and Tibet (Current status of Tibet is COKT, China Occupied Kumaoni Tibet)

Common language - Kumaoni, Tibetan.

Religion - Hinduism.



The Royal Flag of Kumaon Kingdom,

  • The white background stands for peace and friendship.
  • The crossed Khukri sign embossed on the white background with blades on the outer side signifies that, although we yearn for peace and friendship, we are always ready for combat.
  • The red color signifies our enemies' blood if anyone dares to challenge us.

The War Flag of Kumaon Kingdom,

  • The black background stands for all out and no rules warfare.
  • The crossed Khukri sign on black background with blades on the outer side reminds us to win the war at any cost, keep the flag fluttering with, the enemy being the main target and annihilation of the enemy the main motto.
  • The red color on the black flag signifies our enemies' blood, pushes us to defeat the enemy by utilizing all and any means, following the principles of 1. First Attack. 2. Swift Attack. 3. Lethal Attack and 4. Continuous Persistent Attack. 


When most of the princely states accepted British Sovereignty, aligned and bowed down to Britishers, the "Chand Kings" refused to bow down to them and instead preferred to forsake their Kingdom and actively took part in the "Freedom Movement". The British Era was one of the worst for India and around 35 million Indians (3.5 Crores Indians) were killed by the Britishers. when Britishers came to India, we were "one of the richest countries in the world" and by the time Britishers left our position changed to "one of the poorest countries in the world"


When peaceful protesters defied a government order and demonstrated against British colonial rule in Amritsar, India, on 13 April 1919, they were blocked inside the walled Jallianwala Bagh and fired upon by British soldiers.

The soldiers, under the orders of Brigadier Reginald Dyer, kept firing until they ran out of ammunition, killing between 379 and 1,000 protesters and injuring another 1,100 within 10 minutes.

Brigadier Dyer was later lauded a hero by the British public, who raised £26,000 for him as a thank you.

The assassination of Michael O'Dwyer

On 13 March 1940, at Caxton Hall in London, Udham Singh, an Indian independence activist from "Sunam" who had witnessed the events in Jallianwala Bagh and had himself been wounded, shot and killed Michael O'Dwyer, the Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab at the time of the massacre, who had approved Dyer's action and was believed to have been the main planner.

"Udham Singh" started the speech with a denunciation of British Imperialism:

"I say down with British Imperialism. You say India does not have peace. We have only slavery Generations of so-called civilization has brought us everything filthy and degenerating. known to the human race. All you have to do is read your own history. If you have any human decency about you, you should die with shame. The brutality and bloodthirsty way in which the so-called intellectuals who call themselves rulers of civilization in the world are bastard blood . . ."

"I do not care about the sentence of death. It means nothing at all. I do not care about dying or anything. I do not worry about it at all. I am dying for a purpose.’ Thumping the rail of the dock, he exclaimed, ‘We are suffering from the British Empire.’ Udham Singh continued more quietly. ‘I am not afraid to die. I am proud to die, to have to free my native land and I hope that when I am gone, I hope that in my place will come thousands of my countrymen to drive you dirty dogs out; to free my country.

"I am standing before an English jury. I am in an English court. You people go to India and when you come back you are given a prize and put in the House of Commons. We come to England and we are sentenced to death.’

"I never meant anything, but I will take it. I do not care anything about it, but when you dirty dogs come to India there comes a time when you will be cleaned out of India. All your British Imperialism will be smashed.’

"Machine guns on the streets of India mow down thousands of poor women and children wherever your so-called flag of democracy and Christianity flies.’

"Your conduct, your conduct – I am talking about the British government. I have nothing against the English people at all. I have more English friends living in England than I have in India. I have great sympathy for the workers of England. I am against the Imperialist Government.’

"You people are suffering – workers. Everyone is suffering through these dirty dogs; these mad beasts. India is only slavery. Killing, mutilating and destroying – British Imperialism. People do not read about it in the papers. We know what is going on in India."

"You ask me what I have to say. I am saying it. Because you people are dirty. You do not want to hear from us about what you are doing in India.

He then thrust his glasses back into his pocket and then shouted:

'Down with British Imperialism! Down with British dirty dogs!"

He turned to leave the dock, spitting across the solicitor’s table.

Kumaon has a history of honoring the martyrs and very proud to have a district named after "Shaheed Udham Singh" 

Between 12 and 29 million Indians died of starvation while it was under the control of the British Empire, as millions of tons of wheat were exported to Britain, as famine raged in India.

In 1943, up to four million Bengalis starved to death when Winston Churchill diverted food to British soldiers and countries such as Greece while a deadly famine swept through Bengal.

Talking about the Bengal famine in 1943, Churchill said: “I hate Indians. They are a beastly people with a beastly religion. The famine was their own fault for breeding like rabbits.”

In 1947, Cyril Radcliffe was tasked with drawing the border between India and the newly created state of Pakistan over the course of a single lunch.

After Cyril Radcliffe split the subcontinent along religious lines, uprooting over 10 million people, Hindus in Pakistan and Muslims in India were forced to escape their homes as the situation quickly descended into violence.

Some estimates suggest up to one million people lost their lives in sectarian killings.


In the early 7th century the Chand Kingdom in Kumaon was established by Raja Som Chand. He continued to call his state Kurmanchal and established its capital in Champawat. The Baleshwar and Nagnath temples were built in this former capital city during the 11th and 12th centuries. Later in 1563, the capital was shifted to Almora by Raja Kalyan Chand and he lay the foundation of a town called Rajapur (A name that is still used and is found inscribed on a number of copper plates of that time.

The Chand rule is seen as the most prominent empire of Kumaon and it coincided with a period of cultural resurgence. Archeological surveys point towards the development of culture and art forms during this period. 

From the 7 to 18 centuries, "Kumaon Kingdom" prospered under the Chand Monarchs and during this period, learnings and new forms of painting (The Pahari school of art) developed.

One of the most powerful rulers of "Chand Royalty" was Raja Baaj Bahadur Chand (1638 - 78) AD. In 1655 he attacked Garhwal and captured the Terai region, including Dehradun. Raja Baaj Bahadur Chand built the Golu Devta Temple at Gorakhal, near Bhimtal and also built the Bhimeshwara Mahadev Temple at Bhimtal.

Towards the end of the 17th century, Raja Udyot Chand erected several temples in Almora, including the Tripur Sundari, Udyot Chandeshwar and Parbateshwar, to mark the victory over Garhwal and Doti. Raja Gyan Chand ascended the throne in 1698 and in 1699 he attacked Garhwal, defeating the remaining Garhwali forces in the battle of Daduli (near Melchauri in Garhwal) In 1707 the Kumaon forces annexed Juniyagarh in Bichla Chaukot (Syalde) and razed the old fort at Chandpur. Later Raja Jagat Chand (1708 - 1720) defeated the Raja of Garhwal and extended his rule in entire Garhwal.

The Chand Kings also defeated the Pal's of Askot, though the latter were allowed to stay and hold on to their agricultural land on payment of a yearly tribute. The hill station of Binsar, 30 km from Almora was the Summer retreat of the Chand Kings.

Titles used by "Chand Kings" during their reign in "Kumaon Kingdom" were (Raja, Maharaja, Rajadhiraj, Mahadhiraj, and Nirpati)



Established - 7 th Century.

"The Chand Kingdom" of Kumaon was originally inhabited by a large number of Hindu clans, each controlling a small area and protecting it with a fortress. These fortresses were scattered across the western portion of Kumaon, where fertile cropland was more readily available, because of these fortresses western Kumaon was referred to as Garhwal. 

Because of its crucial strategic position and religious significance "The Chand Kingdom" of Kumaon was attacked a number of times. The so-called "Great Akbar" was in fact, a "Cunning, Cruel, Inhuman, Brutal and Coward Sultan",  The historians of "Ain-e-Akbari and Tarikhe Badauni" tell the brutality of the so-called "Great Akbar" and his chieftains. He sent his chieftain "Hussain Khan Tukdiya" to attack "Kumaon Kingdom" and loot the temples there, In the attack "Hussain Khan" was severely Injured and so, he was forced to return back and later died a painful death as his wounds never got healed. The "Cunning, Cruel, Inhuman, Brutal and Coward Akbar" nor his son "Jehangir" never ever dared to attack the "Kumaon Kingdom" again. In the sixteenth century, the sultans of Bahmani launched several expeditions into Kumaon. In 1635 the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan I (r. 1628 - 1658) launched a massive invasion of Kumaon (To avenge the defeat of his Grandfather, the so-called "Akbar the Great' in rest of India and "The most "Cunning, Cruel, Inhuman, Brutal and Coward Sultan in the Kumaon Kingdom") and in that war, Kumaon successfully defeated the Mughals. Shah Jahan increased the size of the force and attacked again, without any success against the valiant Kumaonis. (Like every time Shah Jahan had to face defeat at the hands of the "Chand Kings" so, in the end, he was forced to make peace with "Chand Royal's" hence, Kumaon became the only "Hindu Kingdom" to bring the Moghuls to their knees and teach them one of the most important lessons in warfare, "Never dream of attacking the Kumaon Kingdom" thus, Kumaonis earning the sobriquet "The Gods Of War").




To date, there is no record of any oppression or exploitation of the poor by "Chand Kings" and during their rule, it was ensured that cooking fire is lit in every household and every citizen of the "Kumaon Kingdom" had food readily available.


Because of the oppression and exploitation of the poor, Mughals in India built massive forts and Monuments, using free and forced labor (Slaves), to live in luxury and protect themselves from attack by their adversaries but, you will not see any massive forts or monuments in "Kumaon Kingdom", i.e exactly the reason why "Chand Royalty" is still the most respected name in "Kumaon Kingdom". (The "Taj Mahal" built in the 17th century by the Mughal emperor Shah Jehan as, a tribute to his 2nd  wife Mumtaz Mahal, who died delivering her 14th child is a living example of torture, slavery, and forced labor. It took at least 20,000 people 22 years to build it. The artisans that worked on the Taj had their hands cut off by Mughals after the building was completed, to prevent them from building a comparable building).


The "Chand Kingdom" at its peak included Kumaon, Garhwal, Himachal, J&K, Mahakali Anchal, Seti Anchal, Bheri Anchal, Karnali Anchal, Rapti Anchal, Dhawalagiri Anchal, Gandaki Anchal, Lumbini Anchal, and entire Tibet, which included the holy Mount Kailash also known as Gang Rinpoche or as Kangri Rinpoche in the local language.

The "Kumaon Kingdom" stretched up to Afghanistan at the far end, Nepal and Tibet at the other end and plains of UP  at one end. Very few kingdoms in the world can lay claim of having influence in such a vast area.

Even today the attire worn by people and practices being followed in the entire stretch from Afghanistan, Kashmir, Himachal, Uttarakhand, Tibet, and Nepal is similar.

Inspite of ruling "Kumaon Kingdom" for thousands of years, The "Chand Royals build very small forts mainly, Rajbunga Fort, Champawat / Lalmandi Fort, Almora / Sirmohi Fort, Lohaghat / Naithda Fort, Almora / Malla Mahal Fort, Almora / Khagmara Fort, Almora / Banasur Fort, Champawat / Golla Chaud Fort, Champawat / Pithoragarh Fort, Pithoragarh.



Both "Earlobe Piercing", regularly wearing of the six sacred thread "Janev" and recital of the pious "Gayatri Mantra" for men, is a must for a "Chand" to be referred to as a "Raja". Without these three rituals, "Chand Raja's" cannot even enter into wedlock. (Earrings in India have long been associated with the Rajput clan and royalty in general. The practice of wearing earrings is thought to have therapeutic value. Ear piercing is believed to be good for the eyes. It is also said to sharpen the mind and keep evil away. It is intended to open the inner ears for receiving sacred sounds. Hearing of sacred sounds with concentration is considered meritorious in that it cleanses the mind and nurtures the spirit).

Chand's are also referred to as (६ पल्ल्या रजबार). A Rajbar who wears a "Janev" made of 6 threads (Maximum allowed for a Hindu).

As per tradition, Chand Raja's do not bow down for anyone (Even with the "Kul Brahmin's" practice of "Jethi Kansi" Dhog is followed} i.e, a younger "Kul Brahmin" first gives "Dhog to an elder Chand and in return, he is blessed by the elder Chand. (Other Brahmin's are referred to as "Kathi Brahmin" who irrespective of their age, are the first to give Dhog to a "Chand Raja's" of any age group).

The practice of touching feet of anyone is also not followed in the "Chand Community".

Marriage rituals of "Chand Raja's" are strictly held within the "Ruling Class" only, without considering the financial condition of any parties involved. Any marriage outside the "Ruling Class" is boycotted by most of the community members. (Chand's who marry outside the ruling class and even their family members, find it difficult to come back to the community gathering, as normally people keep them at arm's length).

Unlike other communities of India and Nepal, In "Chand Community", the bride's side do not go out looking for prospective grooms for their daughter. It is the groom's side that has to approach the bride's family and the bride's family has a complete right to accept or reject the proposal. There is also no system of Dowry exchange from the Bride's side within the "Chand Community", On the other hand, which is quite opposite to other communities in India and Nepal, the Bride's side has complete right to demand dowry for their daughter, which can be jewelry ornaments to be worn by the Bride.

Tilling / Ploughing farmland is also not permitted for "Chand Raja's" (Any "Chand Raja" who tills farmland is considered as inferior. boycotted and marriage between his family members is held, only with other "Chand Raja's" who plow). In derogatory local language a "Chand Raja" who plows and or is of immoral character, is referred to as "Khassinaka Raja" (Chand Raja's do not touch the "Haluono" which is tied up with the dead cow / Buffalo skin and touching it is considered as "Sacrilege" within the Chand Community)

Some of the practices of the "Chand Community" which can currently be labeled as controversial in today’s circumstances and situation and possibly some of the practices have already been forgotten.

1. Chand’s do not eat any broken grains (There is no practice of eating grains which are broken) All grains have to be fully developed.

2. Any eatable that has fallen to the ground is discarded and not eaten.

3. Not eating mushrooms (Cheu, च्यूँ  (कुमाऊँनी), च्याउ (नेपाली) because it grows in a dirty/ rotten/ decomposed place). Chand’s do not eat anything which grows at a decomposed place.

4. The sprinkling of Gau Mutra (Chodo Halan, छोड़ो हालन) When Chand’s go out of the house and come back, they are sprinkled with “Gau Mutra” to purify themselves.

5. There are separate utensils for serving the people from "Chand Community" and others. Chand’s do not eat or drink from the same utensils which have been used by others.

6. Chand’s do not directly serve even tea to people from other communities. The tea, served in a glass is kept on the floor and the other person picks it from the floor. After completion the other person keeps the glass on the floor, water is poured in the glass, he washes the glass at least 2-3 times and keeps it upside down for the glass to dry in the sun.

7. Chand’s do not come out of their house, to eat their meals (It should always be inside the house)

8. Taking your Bag/Basket and allowing a shopkeeper to pour things in the Bag is a strict no-no. It was considered, as a Chand, we were the one to give things to others (We poured things in other people’s basket and never allowed others to pour in our basket)

9. Chand’s do not apply wet ‘Tikka’ / Pitha /पीठा (कुमाऊँनी) to people from other community. Dry Pitha is given on a piece of paper/leaf and they apply it on their own.

10. When coming back home after attending a funeral / मलामी  (कुमाऊँनी), a small fire is lit outside the house and the person has to come inside the house after crossing the lit fire. (it is believed that any evil spirit does not come inside, after crossing the fire which was lit outside)

11. Wearing of "Dub Dhago"दुब धागो" by married "Chand Women". Along with the "Mangal Sutra"मंगल सूत्र", married ladies wear "Dub Dhago"दुब धागो" all around the year, which is changed during every "Goira Festival" after they break their fasting ("Dub Dhago" is actually not grass which we use for our pooja and we call "Dubo"दुबो"), it is a red thread, with a small gold piece, hung at the center.

12. When the younger "Kul Baman"कुल बामन", "Khas" people and "Khathi Baman"काठी बामन" of any age group, gives "Dhog"ढोग" to a "Chand Raja", they are blessed by the "Chand Raja" with the word "Ji Rya"जी रया" and when the people in the lowest hierarchy gives "Dhog"ढोग" to a "Chand Raja", instead of telling "Ji Rya"जी रया" the "Chand Raja" says "Nika Cho"निका छो".


The current living King of Uttarakhand is Rajadhiraj Mahendra Chand of Lamakhet (Pithoragarh) married to Rani Gita Chand of Rina and they both have three children. Rajkumari Aakanksha Chand, Rajkumari Mallika Chand, and Rajkumar Aryan Chand.



Names of Chand Kings who have ruled the "Kumaon Kingdom" before Raja Mahendra Chand. (Names in ascending order)

Serial NumberNameSamvatYears Ruled
1Raja Som Chand70021
2Raja Atma Chand72119
3Raja Puran Chand74018
4Raja Indra Chand75820
5Raja Sansar Chand77815
6Raja Sudha Chand81320
7Raja Hari Chand83323
8Raja Vina Chand85613
9Raja Veer Chand106515
10Raja Roop Chand108023
11Raja Laxmi Chand109320
12Raja Dharam Chand11138
13Raja Karam Chand112119
14Raja Kalyan Chand11409
15Raja Nirbhay Chand114922
16Raja Nari Chand11707
17Raja Nanki Chand117718
18Raja Ram Chand11959
19Raja Bhism Chand120516
20Raja Megh Chand12267
21Raja Dhyan Chand123318
22Raja Parwat Chand125110
23Raja Thohar Chand126114
24Raja Kalyan Chand127521
25Raja Trilok Chand12967
26Raja Damroo Chand130318
27Raja Dharam Chand132113
28Raja Abhay Chand134430
29Raja Garud Gyan Chand137445
30Raja Hari Chand14191
31Raja Udhyan Chand14201
32Raja Atma Chand14211
33Raja Hari Chand14221
34Raja Vikram Chand142314
35Raja Bharti Chand143713
36Raja Ratan Chand145038
37Raja Kirti Chand148815
38Raja Pratap Chand150314
39Raja Tara Chand151716
40Raja Manik Chand15339
41Raja Kalyan Chand15429
42Raja Puran Chand15514
43Raja Bhism Chand15555
44Raja Balo Kalyan Chand15608
45Raja Rudra Chand15689
46Raja Laxmi Chand159724
47Raja Dilip Chand16213
48Raja Vijay Chand16241
49Raja Trimal Chand162513
50Raja Baaj Bahadur Chand163840
51Raja Udyot Chand167820
52Raja Gyan Chand169810
53Raja Jagat Chand170822
54Raja Devi Chand17206
55Raja Ajit Chand17263
56Raja Kalyan Chand172918
57Raja Deep Chand174730
58Raja Mohan Chand17772
59Raja Pradyuman Chand17797
60Raja Mohan Chand17862
61Raja Shiv Chand1788Few Months
62Raja Mahendra Chand17882
63Raja Mahendra Chand1964Current Raja of Kumaon Kingdom